New Journal Article: Online relationship marketing and customer loyalty: a signaling theory perspective

Dr. Sheena Lovia Boateng, the Executive Director of PRF, has authored a journal article on Online relationship marketing and customer loyalty: a signaling theory perspective. The paper was published by the International Journal of Bank Marketing. The International Journal of Bank Marketing (IJBM) provides the venue for the dissemination of state-of-the-art research on marketing issues related to a range of financial services providers, from banks and insurers to financial advisors and credit providers. The journal primarily focuses on empirically-based studies, thought pieces and review articles. Due to its international nature, articles featured in IJBM explore financial services marketing issues from every corner around the globe.

Clarivate Analytics: 2017 Impact Factor: 2.294*
Scopus CiteScore 2017: 2.70

Abstract of the Paper

Online technologies have, in recent times, revolutionized the process of relationship building between firms and their customers. Nonetheless, there is a limited focus and theorization when it comes to explaining the link between online relationship marketing (ORM) activities and their impact on firm relationship marketing (RM) objectives. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine the signaling role of ORM activities in generating online trust and customer loyalty, through the lens of the signaling theory.

Data for the study were gathered through a survey of 429 Ghanaian retail bank customers. Results were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques.

The paper highlights the signaling role of engagement and interactivity online in influencing banks’ RM outcomes per the signaling theory. It concludes that bank’s online relationship activities, over and above the online tools utilized, need to communicate appropriate and useful signals in order to positively influence online trust and loyalty among customers.

The study, in its uniqueness, utilizes the signaling theory to explain the role and impact of online RM activities in the banking industry.

Cite As: 1. Boateng, S.L. (In Print). Online relationship marketing and customer loyalty: a signaling theory perspective, International Journal of Bank Marketing, (early cite):


New Book on Structural Equation Modelling authored by Dr. Sheena Lovia Boateng

Dr. Sheena Lovia Boateng, the Executive Director of PRF and facilitator of the PRF’s Quantitative Data Analysis Workshop series has authored a book on Structural Equation Modelling. This book seeks to provide a simple practical guide to conducting quantitative data analysis. According to the author, a set of teaching of video series would soon be published to be used alongside the book. The book iterates the purpose of the author, and PRF, in making research easy for aspiring researchers.  The synopsis of the book is as follows:

You are welcome to Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) Made Easy for Business and Social Science Research Using SPSS and Amos. This book seeks to provide a simple practical guide to conducting quantitative data analysis. First, it presents an overview of quantitative research, by explaining different types of variables and the formulation and testing of hypotheses. Second, it presents the rubrics for designing quantitative questionnaires, explains sampling and illustrates how to determine sample size. Third, the book also explains descriptive statistics and how to conduct and present descriptive statistics in a research write-up. Fourth, it provides a step by step process to carry out exploratory factor analysis and procedures for interpreting related outputs from the statistical software package, SPSS. Fifth, it teaches how to establish reliability and validity in quantitative research. Finally, the book explains the basics of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) and demonstrates the two-step approach to SEM analysis, the foundational concepts of measurement models, structural models, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Path Analysis (PA). It also teaches how to run SEM analysis using Amos, and how to interpret the resulting output. This book is essential for anyone involved in business and social science research. Its purpose is not to create a ‘one best format’, but to offer a practical guide in analyzing quantitative data and presenting such analysis in research papers, long essays, theses and dissertations.

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Click to Read the comments of participants who attended a quantitative data analysis training workshop based on the book.

Third Quantitative Data Analysis Workshop: Structural Equation Modelling Made Easy (Part 1)

Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is a multivariate data analysis technique that combines factor analysis and multiple regression analysis in testing networks of causal relationships between variables. The aims and objectives of the workshop were achieved as participants were taken through the above topics. The workshop was aimed at social science researchers and research students who had some prior working knowledge of regression and factor analysis techniques and would like to extend their knowledge into analyzing more complex models. This workshop targeted and provided hands on practical training and skills to students and researchers who needed to develop quantitative skills in SEM using AMOS. The main objectives were to introduce student to the following topics:

  • Introduction to Structural Equation Modelling (SEM)
  • Confirmatory Factor Analysis
  • Model Fit and Model Modification
  • Validating the Measurement Model
  • Specifying the Structural Model
  • Building Nested Models

The following were the comments by some participants were:

The two-day training by Women in Tertiary Education (WITE) in conjunction with PearlRichard’s Foundation on SEM at PRF Lab. was very educative and insightful. The hands-on nature of the training coupled with the guide from the textbook really brought the subject home. Most importantly, the relatively small size of the class allowed for quality attention and support for all participants. It was indeed a great delight to be tutored by a professional with in-depth practical knowledge on the subject matter.


I am glad to have gone through the SEM Workshop for the first time. In my view the workshop has been an eye opener in my understanding of how to run quantitative analysis using SEM. The process was quite involving which requires continuous practice. After going through the SEM programme, I have a better understanding of how hypothesis tests run. My skills in excel has also been sharpened. The factor analysis, reliability and validity concepts have all been made clearer than before. In subsequent workshops, I would like the facilitator to consider the duration and also allow the students to do the practical session on their own under the supervision of the facilitator. We appreciate Dr. Sheena Boateng for the good work done.


I am practically a qualitative researcher with basic statistical knowledge, but was able to follow the workshop with facility. Dr. Boateng did a great job of explaining the complexities of SEM in an accessible manner that transcends academic discipline. The workshop also served as a great introduction of SPSS and AMOS. Overall, the SEM Workshop was well organised and accompanied by an excellent resource book that will enable the participants to continually review the material learned. The workshop inspired me to further build upon my quantitative data analysis skills.


This workshop is certainly one of the best workshops l have attended. The facilitator, Dr. Lovia Sheena Boateng is an excellent instructor, so passionate about what she does. She demystified all the allusions about Structure Equation Modelling (SEM). Though very technical and calls for constant practice, I now feel very confident and inspired towards my research. The training is really worth it and is also applicable for my PhD research. I really appreciate the deep insight provided by this fantastic workshop.


Dr. Sheena Lovia Boateng the facilitator was up to point and took her time to explain into details how to understand and read meaning into research articles done with SEM and participants were taught step by step process of producing and presenting SEM reports.

Each participant received a copy of the SEM book authored by Dr. Sheena Lovia Boateng, titled “Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) Made Easy for Business and Social Science Research Using SPSS and AMOS’. In all eleven (11) people took part in the workshop and all participants were satisfied and very happy with the content and delivery of the facilitator of these workshops.

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